The Barnabas Ministry

An Outline of the Law of Moses

Major Sections


Introduction to the Law
Social and Civil Elements of the Law
Leadership
Ceremonial Aspects of the Law

The Law and Christianity

The Law and the Ministry of Jesus
The Law and Christianity


Introduction to the Law
This study is designed to provide the reader with a functional understanding of the Law of Moses. It summarizes and harmonizes the teachings of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy into a concise, well- organized and practical guide to the Law given to the Jews.

This study is important for several reasons. First, it provides us with a large set of explicit commands given by God to men, giving us some insight into basic morality and the character of God.

It also provides the backdrop of much of the rest of the Bible, from the time of Moses himself, through the Judges, David and the other kings, the prophets, to Jesus and much of the New Testament church as well. Many lessons of the Bible use the standard of the Law or the language of the Law to explain God's will in any given situation. Other parts of the Bible use symbols or references from the Law to convey the message.

Additionally, an understanding of the Law is required to properly understand the day- to- day ministry of Jesus. Jesus and his contemporaries lived under the Law. His teachings and actions primarily related to the Law and how it was interpreted, understood and followed by his hearers. Without considering this setting, a great deal of what he said and did cannot be properly understood.

Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked or stand in the way of sinners or sit in the seat of mockers. But his delight is in the Law of the Lord, and on his Law he meditates day and night. He is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields fruit in season and whose leaf does not wither. Whatever he does prospers. Not so the wicked! They are like chaff that the wind blows away. Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish. (Psalm 1)

This study is in outline form and gives a quick, at- a- glance review of the law. The units given in Scripture have been converted to English, American or metric units to aid the reader's comprehension of the subject matter. Monetary items were converted based upon 40 shekels per pound and the price of $13.50 per ounce of silver (so 100 shekels = $540). However, these items are probably best understood in a relative sense and not an absolute sense. We don't really know what a shekel of silver was worth compared to a pound of flour back in those days. The outline format allows the reader to determine how in- depth this review will be.

The Exodus
The story of the exodus of the people of Israel from Egypt to the promised land is presented simultaneously with the presentation of the Law of Moses. To present the Law in a study without attention to the exodus is to omit the very context and conditions under which the law is given. What follows, then, is a chronological synopsis of the events of the exodus, with Scripture references included.

Event Scripture
Egyptian slavery Ex 1:1-22
Moses born Ex 2:1-10
Moses kills Egyptian Ex 2:11-12
Moses rejected by Israel Ex 2:13-14
Moses flees to Midian Ex 2:15-25
Moses and the burning bush Ex 3:1- 4:17
Moses returns to Egypt Ex 4:18-31
Bricks without straw Ex 5:1- 6:12
Aaron speaks to Pharaoh Ex 6:28- 7:5
Miraculous signs Ex 7:6- 11:10
The Passover Ex 12:1-30
The Exodus Ex 12:31- 13:22
Egypt pursues Israel Ex 14:1-31
Water of Marah Ex 15:22-27
Manna ands Quail Ex 16:1-36
Water from a rock Ex 17:1-7
Amelekites attack Ex 17:8-16
Jethro visits Moses Ex 18:1-27
Moses on Mt. Sinai Ex 19:1- 31:18, Lev 25:1- 26:46
Golden calf Ex 32:1- 34:35, Dt 9:7-29
Moses tells the Law Ex 35:1-19
Holy things built Ex 35:20- 40:38, Num 7:1-- 8:5
Moses in Tent of Meeting Lev 1:1- 7:37
Aaron ordained Lev 8:1- 9:24, Num 8:5-26
Nadab and Abihu die Lev 10:1-20
Blasphemer stoned Lev 24:10-23
Census Num 1:1- 4:49
Passover celebrated Num 9:1-14
Leave Sinai Num 10:11-36
Fire and quail Num 11:1-35
Miriam and Aaron rebel Num 12:1-16
Explore the land Num 12:16- 14:43, Dt 1:9-18
Israel defeated Num 14:44-45, Dt 1:19-46
Sabbath- breaker stoned Num 15:32-36
Korah rebels Num 16:1-50
Aaron's staff buds Num 17:1-13
Miriam dies Num 20:1
Water from a rock Num 20:2-13
Edom denies passage to Israel Num 20:4-22
Aaron dies Num 20:22-29
Arad destroyed Num 21:1-3
Plague of snakes Num 21:7-9
Defeat of Sihon and Og Num 21:21-35
Balaam Num 22:1- 24:25
Immorality and the Moabites Num 25:1-18, Dt 4:3-4
Census Num 26:1-65
Joshua anointed Num 27:12-23
Midianites defeated Num 31:1-54
Moses final words Dt 1:5-- 31:30
Moses dies Dt 34:1-8


Reasons for the Law

  1. To see if Israel would obey (Ex 16:4, 17:28-29, Dt 8:2, 30:11-14, 29:29)
  2. For the instruction of Israel (Ex 24:12)
  3. A covenant with Israel (Ex 34:27)
  4. To give the Israelites life (Lev 18:5, Dt 4:40, 5:32-33, 6:2-3, 16:18, 16:24-25)
  5. To train or discipline Israel (Dt 4:36)
  6. So Israel would fear God (Dt 6:1)
  7. So Israel could live (Dt 32:47)

Promises of the law

  1. Obedience leads to blessings (Dt 28:1-14)
  2. Disobedience leads to curses (Dt 28:15ff)

Requirements for restoration
(Lev 26:40-45, Dt 4:29-30, 30:1-10)

  1. Look for God with all of your heart and soul
  2. Turn to God with all of heart and soul
  3. Take the words of God to heart
  4. Obey God with all of heart and soul
  5. Confess sin
  6. Humble hearts
  7. God will restore
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Social and Civic Elements of the Law

Personal Holiness

  1. Be holy, because God is holy (Lev 19:1-2, 20:7-8)
  2. They are a people belonging to God (Lev 20:22-26)
  3. God makes Israel holy (Lev 20:7-9, 22:31-33)
  4. Do not imitate the nations being driven out (Dt 7:1-6)
  5. Acknowledge God as holy by obeying commands (Dt 10:12-13, 11:1)
  6. Have total love and devotion to God (Dt 6:5, 10:12-13, 11:22)
  7. Keep the Law prominent
    1. Put the law on fenceposts and doorframes (Dt 6:9, 11:20)
    2. Tie the law on forehead and hands (Dt 6:7-8, 11:18)
  8. Garments (Lev 19:19, Num 15:37-41, Dt 22:5, 22:11-12)
    1. Do not wear clothing woven of two different types of material
    2. Wear tassels on the corners of garments
      1. With a blue cord on each tassel
      2. To aid in remembering the commands of God
    3. Men must not wear women's clothing
    4. Women must not wear men's clothing
  9. Do not cut hair at sides of head or the edge of the beard (Lev 19:27)

Family

  1. The right of the firstborn (Num 27:1-11, 36:1-13, Dt 21:15-17)
    1. The firstborn son gets a double share
    2. If a man has two wives and loves one more than the other and the firstborn child belongs to the unloved woman, he still gets the right of the firstborn
    3. Inheritances in the absence of sons
      1. Give the inheritance to his daughters
      2. The daughter's must marry in their own tribe
      3. If he has no sons or daughters, give it to his brothers
      4. If he has no children or brothers, give it to his father's brothers
      5. If his father has no brothers, give it to the closest relative in his clan
  2. A father may nullify any vow his daughter makes (Num 30:3-5, 30:16)
  3. A rebellious son (Dt 21:18-21)
    1. If a son is
      1. Stubborn
      2. Rebellious
      3. Disobedient
      4. Does not listen to discipline
    2. Take him to the town gate and the elders
    3. Parents shall testify to his rebelliousness
    4. All the men of the town shall stone him to death
  4. Respect of parents (Ex 20:12, 21:15, 21:17, Lev 19:3, 20:9, Dt 5:16, 27:16)
    1. Honor and respect mother and father
      1. Will live long in the land
      2. It will go well with children
    2. Whoever dishonors, curses or attacks his father or mother
      1. Is cursed
      2. Must be put to death
  5. Children's punishment for parent's sins  (Ex 20:5, 34:7, Nu 14:18, Dt 5:9, 24:16)
    1. Children punished for their parents sins to 4th generation
    2. Children will not die for their parent's sins
    3. Parents will not die for their children's sins
  6. Parent's responsibility to children (Ex 12:26, 13:8, 13:14-16, Dt 4:9-10, 6:7, 11:19, 31:12-13, 32:46)
    1. Instruct children on the Passover
    2. Instruct children on the plague of the firstborn
    3. Remind children of the history of Israel
    4. Continually discuss the law with the children
    5. Children must hear the law
    6. Children must learn to fear God
    7. Command children to obey the law

Marriage

  1. If a man seduces a virgin who is not pledged to be married (Ex 22:16-17)
    1. He must pay the bride price
    2. If her father permits, she may become his bride
  2. Marital unfaithfulness (Num 5:11-31)
    1. If a husband suspects his wife has committed adultery
    2. Take to the priest
      1. Offering of 2.2 ltr barley flour (no oil or incense)
      2. Wife
    3. Priest puts some holy water and dust from the tabernacle floor into a clay jar
    4. Priest holds the water
    5. Priest loosens her hair and takes the flour offering
    6. Priest makes woman take vow of faithfulness
    7. Priest writes vow on a scroll and scrapes it into the jar
    8. Priest takes grain offering
      1. Wave it before the Lord
      2. Offer a memorial portion on the altar
    9. Woman drinks water
    10. The husband is innocent of any wrongdoing
    11. The woman must pay for her sin
    12. If she swells up, she is guilty
  3. A woman's vows (Num 30:6-16)
    1. A husband has a right to nullify any vow his wife makes
    2. A widow's or divorced woman's vow is binding
  4. Marrying captive women (Dt 7:3, 21:10-14)
    1. If a Hebrew man wants to marry a captive woman
    2. Bring her into home
    3. Shave her head
    4. Trim her nails
    5. Put aside the clothes she was wearing when she was captured
    6. Wait one month for her to mourn her mother and father
    7. If not pleased with her later
      1. Let her go
      2. Do not sell her or enslave her
    8. Do not marry women of the nations of the inheritance
  5. Virginity of a wife (Dt 22:13- 21)
    1. If a husband claims his wife was not a virgin
    2. Wife's parents must bring proof of virginity to town gate
    3. If she was a virgin
      1. The husband must pay $540.00 to her parents
      2. The husband cannot divorce her
    4. If she wasn't a virgin
      1. Bring her to the door of her father's house
      2. All the men of the town shall stone her
  6. Adultery (Dt 22:22)
    1. If a man is caught sleeping with another man's wife
    2. Stone them both to death
  7. Divorce (Dt 24:1-4)
    1. A man may divorce his wife if he finds her displeasing or indecent
    2. He must write her a certificate of divorce
    3. He may marry again
    4. If he is divorced from another wife, he may not remarry one of his previous wives
  8. Newlywed men (Dt 24:5)
    1. For one whole year
    2. No duties or warfare
    3. Stay at home and please his wife
  9. Brother- in- law's duty (Dt 25:5-10)
    1. If a brother dies without having a son
    2. His brother must marry her
    3. The first son born to them shall carry on the dead brother's name
    4. If he refuses to marry her
      1. The widow reports this to the elders
      2. The elders shall talk to him 
      3. If he still refuses, the widow shall
Servants, Slaves and Business
  1. Hebrew servants (Ex 21:1-6, Lev 25:39-43, 25:54)
    1. Serve for six years, then go free
    2. If he came with a wife, they both leave
    3. If he comes alone, he must leave alone
      1. If his master gives him a wife, she and any children belong to the master
      2. If the slave doesn't want to leave his wife and children,
    4. If a Hebrew becomes poor and sells himself into slavery
      1. Treat him as a hired worker
      2. Release him and his children in the year of Jubilee
  2. Hebrew daughter (Ex 21:7-11)
    1. Sold into slavery to another Hebrew
    2. Must either be kept or redeemed, not sold
    3. If purchased as a wife for his son
      1. She gets the fulls rights of a daughter
      2. If he marries again
  3. Beating a slave (Ex 21:20-21)
    1. Any man who beats his slave to death is guilty of murder
    2. If a beaten slave recovers, no punishment shall be rendered
    3. If a slave's eye or tooth is destroyed, he shall go free
  4. Runaway slaves (Dt 23:15-16)
    1. If a foreign slave takes refuge with a Jew
    2. Do not turn him over to his master
    3. Let him live among Israel
    4. Do not oppress him
  5. Pay a hired man before sunset every day (Lev 19:13, Dt 24:14-15)
  6. Lending money (Ex 22:25-27, Dt 23:19-20, 24:6, 24:10-13, 24:17)
    1. Do not charge interest to a brother Hebrew
    2. Do not take in pledge that which he needs
    3. Do not go into his house to take what he pledges
    4. Do not take the cloak of a widow in pledge
  7. Harvest regulations (Lev 19:9-10, 19:19, 23:22, Dt 22:9-10, 23:24-25, 24:19-22, 25:4)
    1. Do not reap to the very edges of the field
    2. Do not gather gleanings or go over the land a second time
    3. Do not plant field with two types of seed
    4. Fruit trees in the promised land
      1. First three years: unclean
      2. Fourth year: fruit is holy to the Lord
      3. Fifth year: may be eaten
    5. If you enter your neighbor's vineyard
      1. Eat all you want
      2. Put nothing in a basket
      3. Do not put a sickle to the standing grain
    6. Do not muzzle an ox treading out the grain
  8. Animals (Ex 23:19, 34:26, Lev 19:19, Dt 22:6-7, 22:10)
    1. Do not mate different kinds of animals
    2. Do not take a mother bird and her eggs
    3. Do not plow with an ox and a donkey together
    4. Do not cook a goat in its mother's milk
    5. Do not eat meat with the blood in it (Lev 7:26-27, 19:26, 17:10-14)
Social Justice and Interpersonal Relations
  1. Civic responsibility (Dt 22:1-4, 24:16-18)
    1. Help your enemy with his overloaded donkey
    2. Return your enemy's ox or donkey
  2. Rebuke a guilty brother (Lev 19:17)
  3. Love neighbor and alien as yourself (Lev 19:18, 19:34)
    1. Do not bear a grudge (Lev 19:18)
    2. Do not seek revenge (Lev 19:18)
    3. Do not hate (Lev 19:17)
    4. Do not covet anything (Ex 20:17, Dt 5:21)
  4. Widows and orphans (Ex 22:22-24, Dt 27:19)
    1. Do not take advantage of a widow
    2. Do not take advantage of orphans
    3. The Lord will kill with the sword those who do, and
      1. His wife will become a widow
      2. His children will be fatherless
    4. Cursed is anyone who fails to do this
  5. Deaf and blind (Lev 19:14, Dt 27:18)
    1. Do not curse the deaf
    2. Do not put a stumbling block in the path of the blind
    3. Do not lead the blind astray on the road (Lev 19:14, Dt 27:18)
  6. Aliens (Ex 22:21, Lev 19:33-34, Dt 10:19, 27:19)
    1. Do not oppress an alien
    2. Do not mistreat an alien
    3. Love him as yourself
    4. Cursed is anyone who fails to do this
  7. Rise in the presence of the aged (Lev 19:32)
  8. Restitution (Num 5:5-10)
    1. When a person wrongs someone
    2. Person must confess the guilt
    3. Make 120% restitution to the wronged party
    4. If wronged party or close relative cannot be found, restitution belongs to the Lord and the priest shall receive it
  9. Boundary stones are not to be moved (Dt 19:14, 27:17)

Idolatry
(Ex 20:1-6, 20:23, 22:20, 34:14, 34:17, Lev 18:21 19:4, 20:1-5, 26:1, Dt 4:15-18, 5:6-10, 13:1-18, 16:21-22, 17:2-7, 18:10, 27:15)

  1. Worship of other gods is forbidden
  2. Sacrifice to any other gods is forbidden
  3. Enticing others to serve other gods if forbidden
  4. Worship of heavenly bodies is forbidden
  5. Idols, images and sacred stones are forbidden
  6. Wooden Asherah poles are forbidden
  7. Sacrificing children to Molech is forbidden
  8. If a person commits idolatry
    1. Investigate it thoroughly
    2. Testimony of two witnesses is required
    3. Stone that person at the city gate
  9. If a town commits idolatry
    1. Investigate it thoroughly
    2. Verify if it is true
    3. Put to the sword everything that lives in that town
    4. Burn the plunder in the town square
    5. The city must never be rebuilt

Blasphemy
(Ex 20:7, 22:28, Lev 19:12, 22:31-33, 24:10-16, Num 15:30-31, Dt 5:11)

  1. Defiant, deliberate sin is considered blasphemy
  2. Misuse of the Lord's name is forbidden
  3. Profaning the Lord's name is forbidden
  4. Swearing falsely by the Lord's name is forbidden
  5. If a person blasphemes
    1. Take blasphemer outside the camp
    2. All who heard the blasphemy are to lay hands on him
    3. The entire assembly is to stone him to death

Sorcery
(Ex 22:18, Lev 19:26, 19:31, 20:6, 20:27, Dt 18:9-13)

  1. The following are forbidden
    1. Diviners or sorcerers
    2. Omen interpreters
    3. Witches
    4. Spell casters
    5. Mediums
    6. Spiritualists
    7. Those who consult the dead
  2. God will cut off those who turn to mediums and spiritualists
  3. Stone those who practice these things

Forbidden sexual activity
(Ex 20:14, 22:19, Lev 18:1-20, 18:22-30, 19:20-22, 19:29, 20:10-24, 21:9, Dt 5:18, 22:21, 22:30, 27:20-23)

  1. Punishable by death (cut off from people/ being cursed)
    1. Adultery
    2. Sex with animals
    3. Homosexuality
    4. Sex with close relatives
      1. Mother
      2. Granddaughter
      3. Aunt
      4. Wife's sister
      5. Sister
      6. Half- sister
      7. Sex with a woman and her daughter or granddaughter (burn them in the fire)
      8. Brother's wife
      9. Father's wife
      10. Son's wife
    1. Sex during a woman's period
    2. Prostitution (priest's daughter burned in fire)
    3. A woman who gets married and cannot prove she is a virgin
  2. Fornication with a slave girl is not punishable by death
Crimes
  1. Theft (Ex 20:15, 22:1, 22:3-4, 22:7-15, Lev 6:1-7, 19:11, 19:13, 24:18, 24:21)
    1. Ox or sheep stolen and slaughtered or eaten shall be replaced with five head of cattle for the ox, four sheep for the sheep
    2. A thief must make restitution for what he has stolen
    3. If a thief cannot make restitution for what he has stolen, he shall be sold to pay for his theft
    4. If a stolen animal is found alive in the possession of a thief, he must pay back double
    5. A man who allows his livestock to graze in another's field must make restitution from his own field
    6. If a man gives his neighbor any goods for safekeeping and they are stolen, the thief shall pay back double
    7. If a man gives his neighbor any goods for safekeeping and they are stolen and the thief is not caught, the matter he shall be taken before the judges to determine guilt
      1. If an animal was left, and it was stolen or dies or is injured, the trustee may take an oath of innocence and this shall close the matter
      2. If a animal was torn to pieces by a wild animal, remains shall be presented as evidence
      3. If he is guilty of wrongdoing, he must make restitution
    8. If an animal is borrowed and dies or is injured, he must make restitution
      1. If the owner is with the borrowed animal, the borrower doesn't have to pay
      2. If the animal was hired, the money paid covers the loss
    9. Do not defraud your neighbor or rob him
    10. In all cases and claims
      1. They shall go before the judge
      2. The guilty party must pay back double
    11. Deceit
      1. About something entrusted with
      2. Find lost property and lies about it
      3. Swears falsely
      4. Make 120% restitution
      5. Must present guilt offering
  2. Capital offenses
    1. Murder (Ex 20:13, 21:12-14, 21:23, 22:2-3, Lev 24:17, 24:21, Num 35:16-21, Dt 5:17, 27:24-25)
      1. A man who kills someone breaking in is guilty only if it happens after sunrise
      2. Whoever commits murder must die
    2. Kidnapping (Ex 21:16, Dt 24:7, 27:24-25)
    3. Failure to control a known wild bull that kills someone (Ex 21:28-29)
    4. In regards to the holy things
      1. Going upon the mountain of the Lord (Ex 19:12-13)
      2. Unauthorized entry to the Most Holy Place (Lev 16:1-2)
      3. Non- Levites approaching the tabernacle (Num 1:51, 3:10, 3:38, 4:18-19, 18:1-7)
      4. Making perfume similar to the perfume for anointing priests, or putting it on someone other that a priest (Ex 30:33)
      5. Making incense similar to that used in the tabernacle (Ex 30:38)
      6. Unauthorized sacrifices (Lev 10:1-3, 17:1-9)
    5. Rape (Dt 22:25)
    6. Sexual perversions (Ex 22:19, Lev 18:1-30, 20:10-16, 20:18, Dt 22:13-25)
    7. Promiscuity (Dt 22:13-21)
    8. In regards to parents
      1. Attack parents (Ex 21:15)
      2. Curse parents (Ex 21:17, Lev 20:9, Dt 27:16)
      3. Rebellion against parents (Dt 21:18-21)
    9. Breaking the Sabbath (Ex 31:12-18, 35:2, Num 15:32-36)
    10. j. Blasphemy (Lev 24:14)
    11. Idolatry (Lev 20:1-5, Num 25:5, Dt 13:1-11, 17:2-7, 27:15)
    12. False prophecy (Dt 18:17-22)
    13. Sorcery (Ex 22:18, Lev 20:27)
    14. Contempt of court (Dt 17:8-13)
    15. Wrongful accusations of capital offenses (Dt 19:16-21)
    16. Violations of ceremonial aspects
      1. Passover (Ex 12:19, Num 9:13)
      2. Day of atonement (Lev 23:26-32)
      3. Fellowship offering rules (Lev 7:20-21, 19:5-8, 22:3)
      4. Failure to cleanse (Num 19:13-20)
    17. Eating blood or fat (Lev 7:26-27, 17:10-14)
    18. Defiant sin (Num 15:30-31, Dt 27:26)
    19. Withholding justice (Dt 27:19)
    20. Moving boundary stones (Dt 27:17)
    21. Leading the blind astray (Dt 27:18)
    22. Accepting a bribe for murder (Dt 27:25)
    23. Two witnesses required for execution (Num 35:30, Dt 17:6, 19:15)
  3. A man must make restitution if he starts a fire that burns someone else's fields (Ex 22:6)
  4. False testimony (Ex 20:16, Lev 19:11, 19:16, Dt 5:20, 19:16-21)
    1. Do not spread slander
    2. Judges must investigate
    3. If guilty, do to him as he sought to do to his brother
  5. Capital punishment (Dt 17:7, 21:22-23)
    1. Witnesses shall be the first to execute
    2. If someone is hung on a tree, do not leave the body on the tree overnight
  6. Beatings (Dt 25:1-3)
    1. If the judges rule a man guilty in a dispute
    2. He may be beaten
    3. But not more than forty times
  7. Differing weights are prohibited (Lev 19:35-36, Dt 25:13-16)
  8. Battery and negligence (Ex 21:18-19, 21:22-25, 21:28-36, 22:33-34, Lev 19:16, 24:19-20, Dt 22:8, 25:11)
    1. If somebody hits someone else and he does not die but is confined to bed for a period of time
      1. The offender must compensate for his loss of time
      2. See that the injured man is completely healed
    2. Personal injury shall be punished eye for eye
    3. If men are fighting and hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth
      1. They will be fined whatever the court allows
      2. If there is a serious injury, take life for life
    4. If men are fighting and a woman seizes her husband's opponent by his private parts, cut off her hand
    5. If a bull gore someone to death
      1. Stone the bull to death, do not eat its meat
      2. If the owner of the bull was negligent
      1. If it gores a slave, the owner must pay the slave-owner $162.00
    6. If a bull gores another bull
      1. If owner is negligent, he must replace the dead animal
      2. If he is not negligent, they must
    7. If a man digs a pit and an animal falls into it, he must pay for the loss
    8. Do not do anything that endangers your neighbor's life
    9. Build a parapet around the roof of a house so no one can fall off of it
  9. Unsolved murder (Dt 21:1-9)
    1. Judges measure closest town to the dead body
    2. Take an unworked heifer
    3. Lead her into an unfarmed valley with a flowing stream
    4. Elders break the neck of the animal
    5. Elders wash hands over the carcass and testify to their innocence
  10. Rape  (Dt 22:23-29)
    1. If a man meets a virgin pledged to be married and rapes her in town
      1. Stone the woman for not screaming
      2. Stone them man for violating another man's wife
    2. If a man meets a virgin pledged to be married and rapes her in the country, stone the man only
    3. If a man rapes a woman who is not pledged to be married
      1. He must pay the woman's father $270.00
      2. He must marry her
      3. He can never divorce her
  11. Cities of refuge (Num 35:6-34, Dt 4:41-43, 19:1-13)
    1. Six centrally located cities
    2. Whoever kills a man without malice aforethought may flee to there
    3. Whoever kills a man with malice and flees to here can be taken back to his town and punished
    4. If the killer leaves the city of refuge, the avenger of blood may avenge upon him
    5. When the high priest dies, he may return to his property
  12. Response to legal matters (Ex 23:1-9, Lev 5:1, 19:15, Dt 19:15, 22:1-4, 24:16)
    1. Do not spread false reports
    2. Do not side with the crowd in perverting justice
    3. Do not follow the crowd in wrongdoing
    4. Do not show favoritism or partiality to anyone
    5. Failure to testify about a matter you know about is a sin
    6. Do not deny justice to a poor man
    7. Have nothing to do with a false charge
    8. Do not put an innocent or honest person to death
    9. Do not accept a bribe
    10. One witness is not sufficient to convict a person of a crime
    11. Do not punish a father for the sins of his son
    12. Do not punish a son for the sins of his father
    13. Render justice to an alien
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Leadership

Moses

(Ex 3:10, 18:15-20, 19:9, Dt 1:9-18)

  1. Sent by God to confront Pharaoh
  2. Seen speaking with God
  3. To be trusted by the people
  4. To represent the people before God
  5. Teach people the laws and decrees
  6. Show them how to live

Levites

  1. Considered holy to the Lord (Lev 21:8, Num 3:11-13, 18:1, 18:20, Dt 18:1-2)
    1. Do not count the Levites in a census of Israel
    2. Levites taken in place of the firstborn male of all of Israel
    3. To be considered holy by Israel
    4. Levites have no inheritance of land in Israel
  2. Duties of priests (Lev 10:10-11, 21:6, Num 6:22-27)
    1. Teach Israel the law
    2. Determine between the clean and the unclean
    3. Determine between the holy and profane
    4. Bless Israel
    5. Make offerings to the Lord by fire
    6. Responsible for offenses against the sanctuary and against the priesthood
  3. Distinction between Levites and priests (Num 1:47-53, 3:5-10, 18:2-7)
    1. Sons of Aaron are priests
      1. Work at altar
      2. Work inside the curtain
    2. Levites
      1. Assist Aaron and his sons
      2. Levites responsible for moving the tabernacle
  4. The high priest (Lev 21:10-15)
    1. Has had anointing oil poured in his head
    2. Ordained to wear the priestly garments
    3. Hair must not become unkempt
    4. Cannot tear his clothes
    5. Cannot enter a place where there is a dead body (Not even for his parents)
    6. Cannot leave the sanctuary or desecrate it
    7. Must marry a virgin Levite
  5. Special regulations for priests (Lev 21:1-7)
    1. Hair
      1. Cannot let hair become unkempt
      2. Cannot shave edges of beards iii. Cannot cut their bodies
    2. Clean and unclean
      1. Cannot make himself unclean for the dead except
        • Parents
        • Brother or unmarried sister
        • Son or daughter
      2. Cut off if offering sacrifices while unclean
    3. Cannot
      1. Tear clothes
      2. Drink wine or other fermented drink when going into the Tent of Meeting, or will die
    4. Can only marry a virgin Levite
  6. Regulations of service
    1. Exclusion from service at the tent (Lev 21:16-23, 22:1-3, Num 8:23-26)
      1. Blind or any eye defect
      2. Lame
      3. Disfigured
      4. Deformed
      5. Crippled hand or foot
      6. Hunchbacked or dwarfed
      7. Festering or running sores
      8. Damaged testicles
      9. Those with defects may eat of holy offerings
    2. Levites work ages
      1. Start at 25
      2. Retire at 50, but may still assist
    3. Treat offerings with respect
    4. Whoever comes near the offerings while unclean shall be cut off
  7. The priests' and Levites' share of offerings (Lev 7:28-36, 10:12-15, 22:4-16, Num 18:8-19, 18:21-32, Dt 18:3-5)
    1. What parts of fellowship offerings
      1. Breast of fellowship offering
      2. Right thigh of fellowship offering
      3. Eat in a ceremonially clean place
    2. Eat grain offering by the altar
    3. Who may eat
      1. Priest's slaves
      2. A daughter who is
        • Widowed or divorced
        • Without children
    4. Who may not eat
      1. Priest's guests
      2. Priest's hired hands
      3. Any priest who becomes unclean
    5. Whoever eats a sacred portion accidentally must pay 120%
    6. All wave offerings belong to the priests
    7. All the firstfruits belong to the Levites
    8. Everything devoted in Israel is the Levites'
      1. Firstborn is Levite's
      2. Redeem firstborn sons
      3. Redeem firstborn unclean animals
      4. Do not redeem firstborn ox, sheep, or goats
    9. Tithe offerings go to the Levites
      1. Levites must offer a tenth as an offering
      2. Must present the best part
      3. Will be reckoned as from the threshing floor or the winepress
  8. A priest's daughter who becomes a prostitute must be burned (Lev 21:9)

The Judges
(Ex 18:13-27, Num 11:16-17, Dt 1:9-18, 16:18-20, 17:8-13)

  1. Qualifications
    1. Fear God
    2. Hate dishonest gain
    3. Worthy of trust
    4. Wise
    5. Respected
    6. Understanding
    7. Capable
  2. Selection
    1. By Moses at first; later by the people
    2. From among all the people of Israel
  3. Appointment
    1. Over tens, fifties, hundreds and thousands
    2. For each town in every tribe
  4. Service
    1. Easy cases- administer justice without bribes or partiality
    2. Difficult cases brought to Moses; after Moses,
      1. Bring plaintiff and defendant to place of God's choosing
      2. Bring judge and priest to render verdict
      3. Their ruling is binding
  5. Contempt of court punishable by death

Prophets
(Dt 18:14-22)

  1. A prophet shall be put to death if
    1. He claims a message is from God and it is not
    2. He speaks in the name of other gods
  2. Test of validity of a prophet:
    1. A prophet proclaims in the name of the Lord
    2. It does not come true or take place
    3. This message is not from God
  3. The Prophet
    1. God will raise him up
    2. He will be just like Moses
    3. God will put his words in his mouth
    4. He will say everything God commands him
    5. God will call to account anyone who ignores him

The King
(Dt 17:14-20)

  1. Selection
    1. Must be chosen by God
    2. Must be an Israelite
  2. Practices
    1. Must not
      1. Acquire many horses
      2. Make the people return to Egypt
      3. Acquire many wives or his heart will be led astray
      4. Acquire large amounts of silver and gold
    2. Upon taking throne
      1. Must make his own copy of the Law
      2. Must keep it with him
      3. Must read it everyday so he may

Other servants
(Ex 31:1-11)

  1. God filled them with the Holy Spirit
  2. Given the task of building holy articles

Submission to rulers
(Ex 22:28, Dt 17:8-13, 24:8-9)

  1. Do not the curse the ruler of the people
  2. Do exactly as the priests command
  3. Contempt punishable by death
Military  Responsibility and Conduct
(Dt 20:1-20, 23:9-14, 24:5)
  1. Priest shall first come forward and address the army
  2. The following may be discharged:
    1. Someone who has dedicated his house
    2. Someone who has planted a vineyard but not yet enjoyed it
    3. Someone engaged to be married
    4. Someone married less than a year
    5. Someone who is faint- hearted
  3. Cities not a part of the inheritance
    1. Make a city an offer of peace
    2. If they accept peace, they become your slaves
    3. If they do not accept peace, totally destroy them
  4. Totally destroy everything in cities that are a part of the inheritance
  5. Do not use fruit trees to lay siege to a city
  6. Uncleanness in the camp
    1. Nocturnal emission
      1. Go outside of camp all day
      2. Wash as evening approaches
      3. Return to camp at sunset
    2. Human waste
      1. Designate a place outside camp
      2. Dig a hole to cover excrement
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Ceremonial Aspects of the Law

The Calendar
(Ex 23:14, 23:17, 34:23-24, Lev 23:4, 23:37-39, 23:44, Num 29:40, Dt 16:16-17)

  1. Passover (Ex 12:1-11, 12:21-51, 34:25, Lev 23:4-8, Num 9:1-14, 28:16, Dt 16:1-7)
    1. Twilight, 14th day of first month (The ceremonially unclean do it the 2nd month)
    2. The Passover lamb
      1. Selected on 10th day
      2. A year- old male with no defects
      3. One per family
      4. Slaughter at twilight on 14th day, at designated place
      5. Don't break the bones
      6. Roast meat over fire with bitter herbs
      7. Put blood on top and sides of doorframes
      8. Eat the meat with yeastless bread
      9. No uncircumcised male may eat it
      10. Don't leave any meat until morning (burn what is left)
      11. Eat in haste
      12. Cloak tucked in belt, sandals on, staff in hand
      13. Aliens may eat if they are circumcised
    3. Place to eat
      1. Eat in house, and don't leave house (first Passover)
      2. Eat at designated place, remain there until morning
    4. Whoever isn't on a journey must celebrate it or be cut off
  2. Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex 12:14-20, 13:2-10, 23:15, 34:18, Lev 23:6-8, Num 28:17-25, Dt 16:8)
    1. Begins 15th day of first month- the day after the Passover
    2. 1st and 7th days are a Sabbath
      1. Sacred assembly
      2. No regular work
    3. 1st day offerings, year- old males, no defects;
      1. 2 bulls
      2. 1 ram
      3. 7 lambs
      4. 1 goat, as a sin offering
    4. For all seven days
      1. Get rid of all yeast in Israel
      2. No yeast in bread
      3. Present same offerings from 1st day
    5. A reminder that the law is to be on your lips
  3. Feast of Harvest (Ex 23:16, Lev 23:9-14)
    1. Day after the Sabbath
    2. Firstfruits of crops to the Lord
    3. Priest waves sheaf to the Lord
    4. Offer a year- old lamb without defect
    5. Eat nothing until this is done
    6. No one should be empty- handed
  4. Feast of Weeks (Ex 34:22, Lev 23:15-21, Num 28:26-31, Dt 6:9-12)
    1. 50 days after the sheaf wave; the first sickle to grain
    2. Firstfruits of wheat harvest
    3. Freewill offerings in proportion to blessings received
    4. Grain-wave offering
      1. 2 loaves
      2. 4.4 ltr flour
      3. No yeast
    5. Burnt offerings
      1. Year-old males with no defects
      2. 7 lambs
      3. 1 ram
      4. 2 bulls
    6. Sin offering- one male goat
    7. Fellowship offerings- 2 one year old lambs
    8. Wave the lambs and the bread (firstfruits) before the Lord
    9. One day feast (Sabbath)
      1. Hold a sacred assembly
      2. No regular work
      3. Rejoice at the temple
  5. Feast of Trumpets (Lev 23:23-25, Num 29:1-6)
    1. 1st day, 7th month
    2. One day feast (Sabbath)
      1. Sacred assembly
      2. No regular work
      3. Trumpet blasts
    3. Burnt offerings
      1. 1 bull
      2. 1 ram
      3. iii. 7 male lambs
      4. 1 male goat as a sin offering
  6. Feast of Ingathering (Ex 23:16, 34:22)
    1. At end of year
    2. When crops are gathered
  7. Day of atonement (Lev 16:1-34, 23:26-32, Num 29:7-11)
    1. 10th day of 7th month
    2. One day feast- Sabbath
      1. Sacred assembly
      2. No work
      3. Deny self (fast)
      4. From twilight of 9th to twilight of 10th
    3. Offerings
      1. Normal daily offerings
      2. Extra burnt offerings, all one year old, without defect males
        • 1 bull
        • 1 ram
        • 7 lambs
      3. Sin offering, a year- old without defect male goat
      4. Special offerings from Israel's folds
        • 1 young bull
        • 2 rams
        • 2 goats
    4. Priest
      1. Bathe in water
      2. Wear sacred linen undergarments, tunic, sash and turban
    5. Atonement procedure
      1. No one else in the tent of meeting; except Aaron
      2. Offer one bull as sin offering for priest and his house
      3. Cast lots at entrance to Tent of Meeting for the goats
      4. Put incense before atonement cover using
        • Censer of burning coals from altar
        • 2 handfuls of incense
      5. Sprinkle bull's blood 7 times on atonement cover
      6. Slaughter goat #1 and do likewise
      7. Sprinkle blood on horns of altar outside 7 times
        • Bull
        • Goat #1
      8. Goat #2
        • Lay hands on it
        • Confess the sins of Israel over it
        • Send goat into desert with a caretaker to release it
        • Caretaker must wash clothes and bathe before returning
      9. Take off holy garments, bathe, put on regular clothes
      10. Perform burnt offerings for self and nation
      11. Burn fat from sin offering on altar
      12. Burn bull and goat remains outside of camp
      13. The man burning the remains must wash his clothes and bathe before returning to camp
  8. Feast of Tabernacles (Lev 23:33-36, 39-43, Num 29:12-39, Dt 16:13-15)
    1. Begins on 15th day, 7th month
    2. Seven day feast
      1. First and Eighth days- Sabbath
        • Sacred assembly
        • No regular work
      2. Other days: Rejoice, celebrate, live in booths
    3. Offerings
      1. First 7 days, year- old males, no defects
        • Bulls: 13 on 1st day, 12 on 2nd, etc.
        • Rams: 2 each day
        • Lambs: 14 each day
      2. 8th day, year- old males, no defects
        • 1 bull
        • 1 ram
        • 7 lambs
      3. Sin offering
        • Offered each of eight days
        • 1 male, year- old goat, no defects
  9. Sabbath Years- Every 7th year is a Sabbath year (Ex 23:10-11, Lev 25:1-7, Dt15:1-18, 31:9-13)
    1. Debts
      1. Cancel all debts every seven years
      2. Don't hold back as time approaches
    2. Servants
      1. Release them after six years
      2. Supply them liberally when they leave
      3. If servant doesn't want to leave
        • Poke a hole in his earlobe
        • He is a slave for life
    3. Land
      1. Sow and reap 6 years
      2. Let land rest 7th year
      3. Do not reap what grows by itself
    4. Feast of Tabernacles
      1. Read the Law publicly
      2. In the hearing of men, women, children and aliens
  10. Jubilee Year- 7 sets of Sabbath years (Lev 25:8-55)
    1. On the day of atonement
      1. Sound trumpet to consecrate 50th year
      2. Proclaim liberality
    2. Return to clan, family, property
    3. Land
      1. Treat as a Sabbath year
      2. Except eat what grows on its own
    4. Land deals
      1. Take years until Jubilee into account
      2. Land is not sold permanently
      3. Seller can redeem it
      4. Houses in cities not redeemable after 1 year, except for Levites
    5. People who sell themselves as property can be redeemed also
    6. Jubilee
      1. Return to your own property
      2. Return property purchased
      3. Free all servants

The Sabbath
(Ex 16:27-30, 20:8-11, 23:12, 31:12-17, 34:21, 35:1-3, Lev 19:3, 19:30, 23:1-3, 26:2, Num 15:32-36, Dt 5:12-15)

  1. Six days to work
  2. Seventh day is the Sabbath- keep it holy
    1. Do no work (includes children, servants, animals, aliens)
    2. Hold a sacred assembly
    3. Refresh donkeys, oxen, slaves, aliens
    4. Do not light a fire in dwellings
    5. Observe always, even during plowing and harvest seasons
  3. Whoever breaks the Sabbath must be put to death
  4. A sign so Israel would remember and know that God is the Lord.
  5. Represents the six days of creation of God, and his rest

Offerings

  1. Grain and drink offerings (Num 15:1-14)
    1. To accompany the offering of every animal
    2. Lamb: 2.2 ltr flour with 1 ltr oil; 1 ltr wine
    3. Ram: 4.4 ltr flour with 1.33 ltr oil; 1.33 ltr wine
    4. Bull: 6.6 ltr flour with 2 ltr oil; 2 ltr wine
  2. Regular offerings
    1. Daily offerings (Ex 29:38-43, Num 28:1-8)
      1. Once in morning
      2. Once at twilight
      3. At entrance to Tent of Meeting
      4. 1 one year- old lamb
    1. Sabbath offerings- 2 year- old lambs (Num 28:9-10)
    1. Monthly offerings (Num 28:11-15)
      1. i. On 1st of every month, on the New Moon
      2. 2 young bulls, one ram, 7 male lambs a year old
      3. Also one goat as a sin offering
    1. Incense offerings (Ex 30:7-9)
      1. Burn fragrant incense on incense altar
      2. Morning and evening while tending lamps
  3. Mechanics of offerings
    1. Burnt offerings (Lev 6:8-9)
      1. Bulls (Lev 1:1-9, Num 15:1-31)
      1. Sheep or goats (Lev 1:10-13)
      1. Doves or pigeons (Lev 1:14-17)
      1. Burnt offerings remain on the fire all night
    2. Fellowship offering (Lev 3:1-17, 7:11-21)
      1. Bull
      1. Lamb or goat
      1. For thanksgiving, offer also
      1. For vow or freewill offerings
    3. Sin offering (Lev 6:24-30, 7:1-27, Num 15:22-31)
      1. Unintentional sin of the anointed priest (Lev 4:1-12)
      1. Unintentional sin of whole Israelite community (Lev 4:13-21, Num 15:22-26)
      1. Unintentional sin of a leader (Lev 4:22-26)
      1. Unintentional sin of an Israelite (Lev 4:27-35, Num 15:27-29)
      1. Offering for unique sins (Lev 5:1-13)
      1. Priest's share of sin offerings not for the Holy Place (Lev 6:24-30)
    4. Guilt offering (Lev 5:14-19, 6:1-7, 7:1-10)
      1. For
      1. Bring ram from the flock
      2. Offer it in the standard way
        • Sprinkle blood on all sides of the altar
        • Offer all the fat
      3. Make restitution
      4. Priest's share
    5. Grain offering or firstfruits of grain offering (Lev 2:1-16, 6:14-28)
      1. Fine flour with oil and incense (firstfruits)
        • Take it to the priest
        • Priest burns all the incense with handful of flour and oil
        • Priest keeps rest of flour and oil for himself
      2. Oven baked grain offering
        • Cakes made without oil or yeast
        • Wafers made without yeast should be spread with oil
      3. Griddle prepared offering
        • Flour mixed with oil
        • No yeast
        • Crumble it up and pour oil on it
      4. Pan prepared offering
        • Use flour and oil
        • No yeast
        • Take to the priest
        • Burn memorial portion on the altar
        • Priest keeps the rest for himself
      5. Any male Levite may eat it in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting
      6. No yeast or honey
      7. Season everything with salt
  4. Burnt offering altar maintenance (Lev 6:8-13)
    1. Ashes
      1. Remove ashes from the altar and place beside the altar
      2. Put on civilian clothes
      3. Take to ceremonially clean place outside the camp
    2. Keep fire burning always
    3. Add firewood in the morning
  5. Offering for the anointing of priests (Lev 6:19-23)
    1. 2.2 ltr flour
    2. Half in morning, half in evening
    3. Prepare with oil on a griddle
    4. Prepared by the son who shall succeed him
    5. Burn it completely
  6. Miscellaneous regulations (Ex 23:18, 34:25, Lev 17:1-9, 19:5-8, 22:17-33, Num 15:1-14, Dt 17:1)
    1. No blood or yeast in any sacrifice
    2. Slaughter animals only at entrance to Tent of Meeting
    3. Fellowship offerings must be eaten within 3 days or be burned
    4. Don't offer animals that are crippled or less than 8 days old
    5. Don't offer an animal and its offspring on the same day
    6. Thank offerings must be eaten on the same day

The Tabernacle
(Ex 36:8- 39:31, 40:1-33)

  1. The courtyard (Exodus 27:9-19)
    1. Dimensions
      1. North and South sides- 150 ft.
      2. East and West sides- 75 ft.
    2. Curtains around perimeter
      1. Finely twisted linen
      2. 7.5 ft. high
      3. North, South
      1. West side
      1. East side
  2. The chest (ark) (Ex 25:10-16, 26:34)
    1. Acacia wood
    2. 45 in x 27 in x 27 in
    3. Overlay inside and outside with pure gold
    4. Gold molding
    5. 4 cast gold rings fastened to feet
    6. 2 poles of gold- plated acacia wood into rings
    7. Contains the Testimony
    8. Goes into Most Holy Place
  3. The cover of the ark (Ex 25:17-22)
    1. Pure gold
    2. 45 in x 27in
    3. Two cherubim
      1. At opposite ends of cover
      2. Facing each other and looking down
      3. Hammered out- one piece with the cover
      4. Wings spread upward to overshadow the cover
    4. Fits on top of the chest
    5. God gave Moses commands from between the cherubim
  4. The table (Ex 25:23-30)
    1. Acacia wood
    2. 36 in x 18 in, 27 in high
    3. Gold overlay
    4. Gold molding
    5. Gold rim a handwidth wide all around
    6. 4 gold rings at the four corners
    7. 2 poles like those for the ark
    8. Pure gold utensils
      1. Plates
      2. Ladles
      3. Pitchers
      4. Bowls
    9. Contains the bread of the Presence at all times
  5. The lampstand (Ex 25:31-40, Num 8:1-4)
    1. 75 pounds of pure hammered gold
    2. One piece
    3. 6 symmetrical branches, 3 one each side
    4. 7 lamps
      1. To light the area in front of the stand
      2. Wick trimmers and trays of pure gold
  6. The tabernacle curtains (Ex 26:1-6)
    1. 10 curtains
      1. Finely twisted linen
      2. Blue, purple and scarlet yarn
      3. Cherubim worked into them
      4. 42 ft. x 6 ft. each
    2. 50 loops at the ends using blue material
    3. 50 gold clasps hold it together
    4. Join together in groups of 5
  7. The tabernacle (Ex 26:7-37)
    1. Tent
      1. 11 curtains
      2. Goat hair
      3. 45 ft. x 6 ft. each
      4. Covered with ram skins dyed red and sea cow hides
      5. Join together 5 curtains and 6 curtains
      6. Fold the 6th curtain double at the front
      7. 50 loops on each end
      8. Join together with 50 bronze clasps
      9. Additional length to hang to the rear
    2. Tabernacle cover
      1. 10 curtains
        • Finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn
        • With cherubim worked into them
      2. 42 ft. x 6 ft.
      3. Join together in groups of five
      4. 50 loops on the ends
      5. 50 gold clasps
    3. Frames
      1. Acacia wood
      2. 15 ft. x 27 in
      3. 2 parallel projections
      4. Overlay with gold
      5. 20 frames for north and south sides
      6. 40 silver bases
      7. West end - 6 regular frames with 12 silver bases
        • 2 corner frames doubled, with 4 silver bases
        • Held together with 1 gold ring each
    4. Crossbars
      1. 15 total, 5 per side
      2. Center each bar from end to end at middle of frames
      3. Acacia wood, overlaid with gold
    5. Special curtain
      1. Blue, purple and scarlet yarn
        • Finely twisted linen
        • Cherubim woven in
      2. 4 posts
        • Acacia wood, gold overlaid
        • 4 silver bases
        • Gold clasps to hold curtain
      3. Separates Holy Place from Most Holy Place
    6. Put the table outside this curtain on the North side
    7. Put the lampstand outside this curtain on the South side
    8. Entrance
      1. Curtain
        • Blue, purple, scarlet yarn
        • With finely woven linen
      2. 5 posts of gold overlaid acacia wood
      3. 5 bronze bases
      4. Gold hooks to hold curtain
  8. Altar of burnt offering (Ex 27:1-8)
    1. Acacia wood
    2. 4.5 ft. high, 7.5 ft. wide and long
    3. 4 horns at each corner, 1 piece with the table
    4. Bronze overlaid, but hollow
    5. Bronze utensils- pots, shovels, bowls, forks and pans
    6. Bronze grating half- way up
    7. 4 bronze rings to carry it
    8. 2 bronze- overlaid acacia poles
  9. Oil for the lampstand (Ex 27:20-21, Lev 24:1-4)
    1. Clear oil pressed from olives
    2. Keep lamp burning continuously
  10. Altar of incense (Ex 30:1-10)
    1. Acacia wood
    2. 1.5 ft. square, 3 ft. high
    3. 4 horns on corners- one piece with the table
    4. Gold overlay and molding
    5. 2 gold rings on opposite sides to carry it
    6. 2 gold overlaid acacia poles
    7. Set before the Atonement cover
    8. Used on day of atonement for blood
    9. Burn incense on it morning and evening while tending lamps
  11. Bread before the Lord (Lev 24:5-9)
    1. 12 loaves
    2. 4.4 ltr flour per loaf
    3. 2 rows, 6 loaves per row on the table
    4. Put incense along each row and burn it
    5. Put bread out regularly, Sabbath after Sabbath
    6. Eaten by Aaron's sons in a holy place
  12. The basin (Ex 30:17-21)
    1. Bronze basin, bronze stand
    2. Between the Tent of Meeting and the altar
    3. Put water in it
    4. Priests must wash hands and feet in it before ministering
  13. Anointing oil (Ex 30:22-33)
    1. 5.75 kgs of liquid myrrh
    2. 2.88 kgs of fragrant cinnamon
    3. 2.88 kgs of fragrant cane
    4. 5.75 kgs of cassia
    5. 4 ltr of olive oil
    6. Becomes the sacred anointing oil
    7. For holy uses only
  14. Incense (Ex 30:34-38)
    1. Equal amounts of gum resin, onycha, galbanum, frankincense
    2. Salt it
    3. Grind it to powder
    4. For holy uses only
  15. Atonement money (Ex 30:11-16)
    1. At time of census
    2. Each Israelite 20 or older must pay a ransom when counted
    3. Pay $2.70 as an offering to the Lord
    4. Atonement for their lives
    5. Use it for service of the Tent of Meeting
  16. The silver trumpets (Num 10:1-10)
    1. 2 trumpets of hammered silver
    2. To be used for
      1. Calling the Israelites together
      2. One blast means leaders only
      3. Two blasts send tribes out
    3. The priests blow the trumpets
    4. Sound also when going into battle
    5. Sound over burnt offerings for
      1. Appointed feasts
      2. New Moon festivals
  17. Moving the Tabernacle (Num 4:1-33)
    1. Most holy things
      1. Kohathite clan
      2. Between 30 and 50 years old
      3. Priest's prepare for packing
        • Ark and curtain
          • Take down shielding curtain
          • Cover the ark with it
          • Cover this with sea cow hides
          • Cover this with a solid blue cloth
          • Put the poles into place
        • Table of the Presence
          • Put blue cloth over the table of the Presence
          • Put utensils and bread on top of it
          • Cover with a scarlet cloth
          • Cover with seas cow hide
          • Put poles into place
        • Lampstand
          • Wrap lampstand and accessories in a blue cloth
          • Cover with seas cow hides
          • Put it onto a carrying frame
        • Gold altar
          • Cover with blue cloth
          • Cover with sea cow hides
          • Put poles into place
        • Other articles for the ministry
          • Cover with blue cloth
          • Cover with sea cow hides
          • Load onto a frame
        • Bronze altar
          • Remove ashes
          • Cover with blue cloth
          • Put utensils on top of it
          • Cover with sea cow hides
          • Put poles into place
      4. Kohathites come and move the items
        • Must not touch the holy things
        • Must not see the holy things
        • Or they will die
    2. Oil and Incense
      1. Eleazar is charge of
        • Oil for the light
        • Fragrant incense
        • Regular grain offering
        • Anointing oil
      2. Eleazar supervises the moving of the holy things
    3. Tent of Meeting
      1. Gershonites
      2. Thirty to fifty years old
      3. Carry
        • Curtains of the Tabernacle
        • The Tent of Meeting and its coverings
        • Curtains of the courtyard
        • Curtain of the entrance
        • Equipment pertinent to these items
      4. Under the supervision of Ithamar
    4. Tabernacle support items
      1. Merarites
      2. Thirty to fifty years old
      3. Carry
        • Frames
        • Posts
        • Bases
        • Related items
      4. Under the supervision of Ithamar

Solomon's temple
(1 Kings 6:1-38, 7:13-51, 2 Chronicles 2:1 - 7:10)
The construction of Solomon's temple is beyond the scope of this study and here is simply acknowledged.

General Purpose, Remote Altars
(Ex 20:24-26)

  1. Use earth materials
  2. No dressed stones
  3. No steps

Levites

  1. Priestly garments (Ex 28:1-43)
    1. To give the priest dignity and honor
    2. The ephod
      1. Gold
      2. Blue, purple, scarlet yarn
      3. 2 shoulder pieces fastened to 2 corners
      4. Waistband one piece with ephod
      5. 2 onyx stones each having the names of 6 tribes on it
      6. Fasten onto shoulder pieces
        • With filigree gold settings
        • 2 braided chains of gold
    3. The breastpiece
      1. For making decisions
      2. Same material as the ephod
      3. Square 9 x 9 inches, double folded
      4. 12 unique precious stones on it, with a tribe name on each
      5. Attach to ephod shoulderpieces with
        • Gold rings
        • Gold chains
        • 4 more gold rings attached to ephod with blue cord
      6. Put Urim and Thummim inside breastpiece for decision-making
        • Lots
        • They belong to God
        • For more info on their usage: see Lev 8:8, Nu 27:21, Du 33:8, 1 Sam 28:6, Ezr 2:63, Ne 7:65, Pro 16:33
    4. The robe
      1. Blue cloth, opening in center for head
      2. Woven edge of hole for a collar
      3. Blue, purple, scarlet yarn pomegranates on hem
      4. Gold bells between them
    5. The plate or diadem
      1. Gold, engraved "Holy to the Lord"
      2. Blue cord fastened to it
      3. Attach to the front of the turban
      4. Fits on the priest's forehead
      5. Bear the guilt of Israel's sin
    6. The tunic shall be made of fine linen
    7. The turban shall be made of fine linen
    8. The sash shall be embroidered
    9. The undergarments
      1. Made of linen
      2. From waist to thigh
  2. Consecration of the high priest (Ex 29:1-37, Lev 8:1- 36, 9:1-24)
    1. Material requirements
      1. One young bull
      2. Two rams
      3. Bread without yeast baked from wheat flour
      4. Cakes mixed with oil
      5. Wafers spread with oil
      6. A basket to hold the bread products
    2. Bring Aaron (and sons) to entrance to the Tent of Meeting
    3. Wash them in water
    4. Dress him in the garments
    5. Pour anointing oil on his head
    6. Dress his sons in tunics and headbands
    7. Put sashes on them all
    8. Aaron and his sons lay hands on the bull- sin offering
      1. Slaughter bull at entrance to the Tent of Meeting
      2. Using fingers, put some bull's blood on the horns of the altar
      3. Pour the rest of the blood on the side of the altar
      4. Burn the fat from inner parts, liver covering and kidney's on the altar
      5. Burn the bull's flesh and offal outside the camp
    9. Take first ram and lay hands on it- Burnt offering
      1. Slaughter it
      2. Sprinkle blood on all sides of the altar
      3. Cut the ram into pieces
      4. Wash the inner parts and the legs
      5. Put them with the other pieces
      6. Burn the entire ram
    10. Take the other ram- ordination/ fellowship offering
      1. Slaughter it
      2. Take some of this blood and sprinkle on the right earlobe, big toe and thumb
      3. Sprinkle the blood on all sides of the altar
      4. Sprinkle Aaron and his sons and their garments
        • With anointing oil
        • With some of this blood
      5. Wave offering
        • The fat, tail, fat on inner parts, liver and kidneys
        • Fat from the liver and kidneys
        • The right thigh
        • Bread before the Lord
        • Put in hands of Aaron as a wave offering
      6. Then burn these on the altar
      7. Wave breast of ram before the Lord  (Moses' share)
    11. Cook the meat in a sacred place
    12. Only Aaron and his sons may eat of the meat and bread
    13. Leftovers burned the next morning
    14. Take seven days to ordain
    15. Sacrifice a bull as a sin offering each of these seven days
    16. Purify and anoint the altar to atone for and consecrate it
  3. Purification of Levites (Num 8:5-22)
    1. Acquire two bulls for offerings
    2. Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them
    3. Have them shave their whole bodies
    4. Wash clothes
    5. Bring Levites to the Tent of Meeting
    6. Assemble the whole Israelite community
    7. Israelites lay hands on the Levites
    8. Aaron shall present them as a wave offering to the Lord
    9. Offer the bull with its grain offering- burnt offering
    10. Offer the other bull as a sin offering

Vows, Dedications and Devotions

  1. Purification after childbirth (Lev 5:4, 12:1-8)
    1. Unclean after giving birth
      1. 7 days for a male
      2. 14 days for a female
    2. Before purification
      1. Cannot go to sanctuary
      2. Touch anything sacred
    3. Waiting period for purification
      1. 33 days for a male
      2. 66 days for a female
    4. On 40th (male) or 80th (female) day
      1. Year- old lamb for burnt offering
      2. Young pigeon or dove for sin offering
      3. If she cannot afford a lamb, substitute another pigeon or dove for the lamb
  2. Nazirite (Num 6:1-21)
    1. For men or women
    2. Vow of separation for seven days
    3. Abstain from any fermented drink or anything from a vine
    4. Hair on head cannot be cut
    5. Cannot go near a dead body
    6. If someone dies in his presence
      1. Shave head on his 7th day
      2. On 8th day bring 2 doves or 2 pigeons to the priest
        • One is a sin offering
        • One is a sin offering
        • Must bring a year- old lamb a guilt offering
        • Must start over again
    7. When seven days are up
      1. Go to entrance to the Tent of Meeting with
        • Year- old male lamb as a burnt offering
        • Year- old ewe lamb as a sin offering
        • A ram for a fellowship offering
        • The corresponding grain offerings for these
        • A basket of bread made without yeast, cakes and wafers
      2. The priest will present the offerings
      3. The Nazirite must shave again
      4. Burn the hair with the fellowship offering
      5. The priest places in his hand
        • A boiled shoulder of the ram
        • The cake and wafer
      6. The priest waves them before the Lord
      7. These belong to the priest
      8. Then the Nazirite can drink wine again
  3. Dedications of people to the Lord (Lev 27:1-8)
    1. Present the person to the priest
    2. Pay according to the values:
      1. Male
        • 1 month to 5 years = $27.00
        • 5 years to 20 years = $108.00
        • 20 years to 60 years = $270.00
        • more than 60 years = $81.00
      2. ii. Female
        • 1 month to 5 years = $16.20
        • 5 years to 20 years = $54.00
        • 20 years to 60 years = $162.00
        • more than 60 years = $54.00
    3. If too poor, the priest sets the value
  4. Dedication of animals to the Lord (Lev 27:9-13, 27:26)
    1. It becomes holy to the Lord
    2. No substitutions
    3. To redeem an unclean animal
      1. Priest sets the value
      2. May be redeemed for 120% of its value
    4. Cannot dedicate the firstborn animal; it already belongs to the Lord
  5. Dedication of a house (Lev 27:14-15)
    1. Becomes holy to the Lord
    2. Priest determines value
    3. Owner may redeem it for 120% of its value
  6. Dedication of family field (Lev 27:16-21)
    1. Price is set at 68 cents per liter of barley it produces
    2. Pro-rated to the number of years until the Jubilee
    3. May be redeemed for 120% of its value
    4. Cannot be redeemed if
      1. The owner doesn't redeem it
      2. The owner sells it
    5. It becomes the property of the Levites after the Jubilee
  7. Dedication of non- family field (Lev 27:22-25)
    1. The priest determines its value as above
    2. The field goes to the original owner in the Jubilee
  8. Devotion to the Lord (Lev 27:28)
    1. Nothing devoted to the Lord may be sold or redeemed
    2. Everything devoted to the Lord is most holy to the Lord
  9. Binding commitment (Num 30:1-2, Dt 23:21-23)
    1. A man must do everything he vows
    2. To fail to discharge a vow is a sin
  10. Do not bring the wages of a prostitute to pay fees to the temple to discharge a vow (Dt 23:17-18)

Firstborn, Firstfruits and Tithes

  1. Humans- the firstborn son belongs to the Lord (Ex 13:1-2, 13:13-16, 22:29, 34:19-20, Num 8:15-19)
    1. God accepted Levites as a redemption of the firstborn sons of Israel.
    2. Levites purchase/redeem their firstborn sons for $27.00 when the son is 1 month old
  2. Animals- the firstborn male of every womb belongs to the Lord (Ex 13:12-16, 22:29-30, 34:19-20, Lev 27:27, Dt 12:17-19, Dt 15:19-22)
    1. Either redemption or offering takes place on the 8th day
    2. Redeem a donkey with a lamb or break its neck
    3. Don't work a firstborn oxen
    4. Don't shear a firstborn sheep
    5. If the firstborn is defective
      1. Don't sacrifice it
      2. Kill it and pour its blood out at home
      3. Eat it as if it was a gazelle or a deer
    6. If the firstborn is not defective
      1. Bring it to the entrance to the tent of meeting
      2. Sprinkle its blood on the altar
      3. Burn the fat only
      4. The rest belongs to the priest
    7. Redeem unclean animals at 120% value
  3. Crops- the firstfruits belong to the Lord (Ex 23:19, 34:26, Lev 2:14-16, 23:9-14, Num 15:17-21,  Dt 12:17-19, 26:1-11)
    1. Bring the best portion of the firstfruits to the tent
    2. The priest waves a sheaf of the first grain on the day after the Sabbath
    3. Crushed heads of grain burned as memorial portion with incense and oil
    4. Include a year- old lamb, 4.4 ltr cake and 1 ltr wine
    5. Do not eat of the harvest until this is complete
    6. Present a cake of the first ground meal before the altar
  4. Tithes (Lev 27:30-34, Dt 14:22-29, 26:12-15)
    1. One- tenth of the crops and animals belongs to God
    2. Eat the tithe
      1. in the presence of God at his place
      2. If it is too far,
        • Exchange the tithe for silver
        • Go to the house of God
        • Buy something there
        • Eat at the house of God
    3. Levites portion of grain
      1. Every three years
      2. The tithe goes into storage for Levites and aliens
      3. Must be eaten where God commands
    4. All firstborn animals belong to the Levites
    5. The Levites must offer the best 1/10 of the tithe to God

Clean, Unclean and Cleansing

  1. Dietary (Lev 7:22-27, 11:1-47, 17:10-16, Dt 12:23-25, 14:3-21)
    1. To avoid being cut off, do not eat
      1. Blood
      2. Fat of cattle, sheep or goats
    2. Clean animals
      1. Completely divided split hoof and chews cud
      2. Fins and scales
      3. Jointed legs and wings, including locust, katydid, cricket and grasshopper
    3. Unclean animals
      1. Any animal not included above
      2. Any swarming insect
    4. Touching any dead bodies or any unclean animal makes things unclean
      1. People
      2. Objects except springs, cisterns, non- watered seeds
    5. Cleansing
      1. Man: bathe and wash clothes, unclean until evening
      2. Things: wash in water, unclean until evening
      3. Clay items: destroy
  2. Mildew on clothes (Lev 13:47-59)
    1. Woolen, linen, woven, knitted, leather: if it turns greenish-reddish
    2. Take item to the priest, who will isolate it for 7 days
      1. If the mildew has spread, it is unclean and must be burned
      2. If the mildew has not spread, wash and isolate 7 more days
        • If it fades, remove the contaminated portion
        • If it doesn't fade, it is unclean and must be burned
    3. If mildew returns, it is unclean and must be burned
  3. Mildew in a house (Lev 14:33-57)
    1. Bring the priest to quarantine the house for 7 days
    2. Return on the 7th day
      1. If still there
        • Remove the contaminated stones
        • Scrape the walls
        • Take stones to unclean place
      2. If not there
        • Pronounce clean
        • Perform cleansing shown below
    3. If it returns, destroy the house and take stones to an unclean place
    4. Cleansing process
      1. Materials required
        • 2 birds
        • Cedar wood
        • Clay pot with fresh water - Scarlet yarn
        • Hyssop
      2. Kill one bird over the water in the pot
      3. Dip the cedar, hyssop, yarn and live bird in the water
      4. Sprinkle the house with each 7 times
  4. Skin diseases (Lev 13:1-46, 14:1-32)
    1. Rash, swelling or bright spot- go see the priest
      1. Isolate for 7 days if hairs not white and not skin deep
        • If no change, repeat
        • If faded, wash clothes and be clean
        • If it re-appears, go see priest again
      2. Declare unclean if hair is white, raw flesh is present or more than skin deep
      3. If the disease covers completely, declare clean
    2. Healed boil or burn turns white or reddish- go to the priest
      1. If hair is not white and it isn't more than skin deep, isolate for 7 days
        • If not spread, clean
        • Otherwise unclean
      2. If hair is white and more than skin deep- unclean
    3. Head or chin sores- go see the priest
      1. No black hair, not more than skin deep- isolate 7 days
        • If not spread nor more than skin deep- wash clothes and be clean
        • If unchanged, no black hair- clean
        • If spread- unclean
        • Not spread, no yellow hair
          • Shave head except isolated area
          • Wait seven days and re-examine
      2. Yellow hair, more than skin deep- unclean
    4. Bald head- clean
    5. Special behavior for the unclean
      1. Live outside of camp
      2. Wear torn clothes
      3. Wear unkempt hair
      4. Cover lower part of face
      5. Must cry out, `Unclean'
    6. Cleansing from skin diseases
      1. For 7 days
        • Priest examines outside of camp
        • If he is clean, use 2 live clean birds, hyssop, cedar wood and scarlet yarn
        • Kill bird over fresh water in clay pot
        • Dip the live bird, cedar wood, hyssop and yarn into the pot
        • Sprinkle the unclean one 7 times, pronouncing him clean
        • Release the live bird to freedom
        • Man must bathe and wash clothes
          • Can enter camp
          • Cannot enter his tent
      2. On the 7th day
        • Shave off all hair
        • Bathe
        • Wash clothes
      3. Poor man's 8th day
        • One male lamb- guilt offering to be waved
        • 2.2 ltr flour mixed with oil- grain offering
        • 0.3 ltr of oil
        • 2 doves or young pigeons for sin and burnt offerings
        • Lamb and oil are a wave offering
        • Slaughter lamb as a guilt offering
        • Pour some of its blood on the unclean person's right earlobe and right big toe
        • Pour oil into palm of left hand, dip right finger into it and sprinkle 7 times before the Lord
        • Pour oil over the blood on his ear and toe, and the rest of the oil over his head
        • Perform the sin and burnt offerings and the grain offering
      4. Rich man's 8th day
        • 2 male lambs and 1 ewe lamb, 1 year old, no defects
        • 6.6 ltr of flour mixed with oil
        • 0.3 ltr of oil
        • Priest presents item and unclean one at entrance to the Tent
          • Offer male lamb and log of oil as a wave offering
          • Slaughter male lamb, put blood on man as above
          • Use the oil as above
          • Perform sin, burnt and grain offering
  5. Bodily discharges (Lev 15:1-33)
    1. Men
      1. If a man has a bodily discharge, he and everything he touches is unclean
      2. A person touching him or anything he has touched must
        • Bathe
        • Wash clothes
        • Be unclean until evening
      3. He must
        • Wash his clothes
        • Bathe
        • Be unclean until evening
        • Count off seven days and on 8th day
          • Offer 2 young doves or pigeons
          • As sin and burnt offerings
    2. Women
      1. Regular monthly flow
        • She is unclean for 7 days
        • Anyone touching her is unclean and must bathe and wash clothes and is unclean until evening
      2. Cleansing
        • Count off 7 days, then she is clean
        • On 8th day, offer same sacrifices as for men
    3. Sexual intercourse
      1. Both must bathe and be unclean until evening
      2. If monthly flow touches man during intercourse, both are unclean for 7 days and must be cleansed as above
  6. Dead Bodies (Num 19:16, 31:19-24)
    1. Anyone who is present when someone dies or touches a corpse, or enters an area with a corpse in it, is unclean for 7 days
    2. All open containers by a corpse are unclean
    3. People must be cleansed on the 3rd and 7th days
    4. Cleansing water
      1. Slaughter a heifer outside the camp in the presence of a priest
      2. Priest sprinkles blood 7 times towards the Tent of Meeting
      3. Burn the heifer with cedar wood, hyssop and scarlet wool
      4. Gather the ashes, put them in a clean place outside the camp
      5. Priest and aides must bathe and wash clothes and are unclean until evening
    5. On 3rd and 7th days
      1. Put the ashes in a jar, pour water over them
      2. Dip hyssop in the water, sprinkle on the unclean places and people
  7. Water of cleansing (Num 19:1-22)
  8. General (Lev 5:2-3, 20:25-26, Num 5:1-4)
    1. Do not become unclean
    2. Sent the unclean away from camp
    3. If a person touches anything unclean, he must make a guilt offering
The Assembly
(Dt 23:1-8)
  1. Exclusion
    1. Emasculated
    2. Born of forbidden marriage
    3. Ammonite
    4. Moabite
  2. Inclusion
    1. 3rd generation Edomite
    2. 3rd generation Egyptian


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The Law and the Ministry of Jesus
In reading the gospels, it is very important to understand that Jesus and his contemporaries lived under the Law. The moral, civil and ceremonial elements of the Law overshadowed life in first century Israel and are the basis of much of the actions and discussion in the gospels.

What follows is a short discussion of certain incidents from the gospel accounts of the life of Jesus, primarily following the gospel of Matthew. By no means is this set of incidents comprehensive, nor is the discussion elaborate. These incidents are cited as examples of those that are more clearly illuminated or explained with a better understanding of the Law.

The Exodus of Jesus from Egypt to Israel (Mt 2:13-15)
The reference of Hosea 11:1 draws a comparison between the exodus of Israel from Egypt and the exodus of Jesus from Egypt

Baptism (Matthew 3:1-15)
The priests were washed when they were consecrated (Ex 29:4, Lev 8:6). John's baptism and later Christian baptism connects with this priestly washing (Heb 4:14, 8:6, 1 Pet 2:9, Rev 1:6, 5:10, 20:6). It also connects with the washings for the unclean (Lev 17:15, Heb 9:13).

The Temptation of Jesus (Mt 4:1-11)
Jesus was in the desert being tested in a similar way compared to the testings of Israel (Num 14:34, Dt 8:2). The portions of the Law quoted by Jesus (Dt 8:3, 16:16) refer not to the perhaps-more-well-known ceremonial aspects of the Law but the overriding values reflected in the Law.

The salt of the earth (Mt 5:13)
All grain offerings were to be seasoned with salt (Lev 2:13). Also, the incense for the Most Holy Place was seasoned with salt (Ex 30:34-35). The salt is referred to as that which makes those things holy, pure and sacred. For Christians to be the salt of the earth is for us to be that which makes the earth holy, pure and sacred- as far as God is concerned, the best part of the earth is Christians. For us to lose our salt is to become profane in our manner and lifestyle.

The fulfillment of the Law (Mt 5:17-20)
Jesus here clearly states that his mission is to fulfill the Law. This is a profound concept, but it should again remind us that much of what Jesus said and did has some connection or relevance in terms of the Law.

Murder and anger (Mt 5:21-22)
Murder was against the law (Ex 20:13) and punishable by death (Lev 24:17) However, defiant disobedience of the Law constitutes blasphemy (Num 15:30), a sin bearing a similar punishment (Lev 24:14). Part of the Law was to love your neighbor as yourself (Lev 19:18). So while murder and certain other sins drew attention as "big sins," deliberate failure to love one's neighbor was also a "big sin."

Reconciliation with brothers (Mt 5:23-24)
Jesus teaches that a sacrifice offered to God while someone has something against you is not acceptable. Hate of a brother and the denial of justice are flagrant violations of the Law, and Jesus teaches that there are some things that are more important than the ritual obedience of sacrificial expectations and commands.

Adultery and lust (Mt 5:27-28)
Adultery was punishable by death (Lev 20:1-9), but covetousness was a sin also (Ex 20:17), and a defiant covetousness was punishable by death (Num 15:30-31). Jesus reminds the Jews of the real issue behind adultery is covetousness.

Divorce (Mt 5:31-32, Mt 19:1-12)
The Law provided for divorce (Dt 24:1ff) if a wife became "unpleasing" and "indecent." Apparently, the Jews used this terminology to justify all sorts of divorces, which is inherently apart from God's plan in the first place. Jesus re-defines the terms "unpleasing" and "indecent" by substituting adultery (Greek porneo).

Oaths (Mt 5:33-37)
In the law, all vows were binding (Num 30:1-2). However, some people made some very stupid oaths (1 Sam 14:38-45, Jud 11:30-39) and these careless vows were sinful in and of themselves (Lev 5:4). Here Jesus puts an end to careless oaths and makes a move to more truthful speech- see Eccl 5:5, Pro 20:25.

An eye for an eye (Mt 5:38-42)
The Jewish way was to demand justice. The was of Jesus is to make oneself nothing (Phil 2:5-7).

Love for enemies (Mt 5:43-47)
The Jews were told to destroy certain peoples because of their wickedness (Dt 20:16-18), but to love other aliens (Lev 19:34, Dt 10:19). Since the time of God's command to destroy those who occupied the land had passed, a loving attitude was due towards all men. The only reason God told the Jews to destroy some nations was because they were wicked and had possession of the inheritance promised to Israel. For the Christian, no man can steal our inheritance; therefore, hate is unjustified.

Jesus heals a leper (Mt 8:1-4, Mk 1:40-45)
According to the Law, a leper was unclean and was required to live outside the city, cover the lower part of his face, wear torn clothes and unkempt hair, and cry out "Unclean! Unclean!" (Lev 13:45-46). Though the Law requires isolation of lepers, it does not prohibit the touching of a leper. Thus, the fact that Jesus healed this man by touching him is very significant. He also instructs the man to offer the sacrifices in accordance with Lev 14 for his cleansing.

Jesus forgives sin (Mt 9:1-7, Mk 2:1-12)
Blasphemy is defined as either the defiant disregard for the commands of God (Num 15:30-31) or the misuse of God's name (Ex 20:7). This offense is punishable by stoning (Lev 24:14). In forgiving sins, Jesus would have been guilty of blasphemy if he was not Divine. Now the Jews who accused him of blasphemy were responsible for either stoning him (as the failure to stone him would make them equally guilty according to Lev 19:17 and Dt 13:1-11), or for believing in him as the Savior. We should not think the Jews were just mean-spirited in their desires to put Jesus to death-- the Law actually commanded this under certain circumstances. So these polar opposite options for the Jews-- belief and worship vs. condemnation and execution--were mandated by the Law depending upon one's perspective of Jesus. Hence, this ongoing controversy about Jesus throughout the gospels (e.g. John 7:12-13).

Jesus heals a bleeding woman (Mt 9:20-22)
By virtue of this discharge, this woman is unclean. It is significant that she is cleansed by touching Jesus.

Jesus raises a dead girl (Mt 9:23-25)
The body of a dead person was unclean, and to touch a dead body would make one unclean. His claim that she is only asleep teaches not only the nature of death but also reflects the Law's teaching about uncleanness from a dead body. Jesus may be pointing to the fact that the real dead body of concern and to be regarded as unclean is not the physically dead but the spiritually dead, whether living or dead (see Lk 9:60, Jude 23).

Sheep without a shepherd (Mt 9:36)
This is the same language Moses used to describe Israel (Num 27:17). Jesus here fulfills the role of Moses as a prophet just like him (Dt 18:15).

Not peace, but a sword (Mt 10:34)
This remark is very similar to the one made in Ex 32:27-29 during the apostasy of the golden calf. The idea that family members might have severe conflict over spiritual or moral matters has a precedent and may be in view in Jesus' remarks. Again, Jesus was a very polarizing figure.

Jesus and the Sabbath (Mt 12:1-14, Mk 2:23-3:6)
Breaking the Sabbath is punishable by death (Ex 31:14). Jesus refers to his and his disciples' actions by comparing them to those of David in 1 Sam 21:1-6 (see Dt 23:24-25). David's action were righteous, and so were those of Jesus and his disciples. Further, Jesus refers to the fact that the priests do their work on the Sabbath as a result of God's specific command (Num 28:9-10). Thus, he exposes the absurdity of the traditions that had grown up around the Sabbath. Part of his mission in teaching was to straighten out the understanding of the Law on the part of the people.

New and old treasures (Mt 13:47-52)
The Law here is described as old treasure, while the teaching about the kingdom of God is described as new treasure. Both are treasure! The Law and the Prophets are still important. They are still God's word (1 Pet 1:25).

John the Baptist and Herod (Mt 14:3-5)
John the Baptist called attention to the fact that Herod was not obedient to the Law in marrying his brother's wife, specifically the command in Lev 18:16.

Jesus is worshiped (Mt 14:33)
God alone is to be worshiped (Ex 20:3-6, Lev 22:8-9, Dt 6:13). By accepting worship, Jesus claims that he is God. By worshiping him, the Jews acknowledge that he is God. Again, Jesus was a tremendously polarizing individual, because he either attracted worship or attempts to put him to death.

Church discipline (Mt 18:15-17)
Under the law, a man could not be executed without the testimony of two or three witnesses (Dt 17:6-7, 19:15). Execution for the Jew and disfellowship for the Christian are analogous: both mean being cut off from God's people and the subsequent inheritance. Also, the entire nation of Israel had to pass judgment in an execution (Lev 20:2, 24:16, Dt 13:9, 17:6-7), and the entire church must act in passing judgment against a sinning Christian.

The temple merchants (Mt 21:12-13)
The Law taught that those who lived far from the temple could exchange their tithe of goods and livestock for silver, then travel to the temple, purchase an equivalent portion of goods and livestock there, and enjoy the tithe at the temple anyway (Dt 14:24-26). Jesus does not reject the presence of the merchants, but rather their crooked business practices (Mt 21:13).

Marriage at the Resurrection (Mt 22:23-33)
The Sadducees here refer to Dt 25:5-10. Jesus instructs them on the nature of marriage- it strictly a provision for the human nature, and it ends at death.

Those who sit in Moses' seat (Mt 23:1ff)
The Law provided for Moses to delegate some of his authority to other men (Dt 1:9-18). This role is for the purpose of judging disputes, and these judgments were binding (Dt 17:12). Jesus is urging submission to their role in spite of their corrupt character. In no way is he suggesting the submission to them in their traditions and arbitrary commands- he teaches the exact opposite. Submission to them in their official role does not mean ignoring their moral failings and hypocrisies as leaders.

The trumpet call (Mt 24:31)
This is not arbitrary symbolism. The Law provided trumpets (Num 10:1-10) to be blown by the priests for the purpose of gathering to assembly, for celebrating the feasts, and for leading Israel into battles. What a description of the Second Coming of Jesus!

The Last Supper (various texts)
Harmonizing the accounts of the Last Supper is beyond the scope of this study, but some observations can be made that in fact provide for a harmonization of these accounts:

  1. The initial Passover was to be eaten with one lamb per family, generally speaking; with staff in hand, sandals on, cloak tucked in (Ex 12:22). No one was allowed to leave the room (Ex 12:11).
  2. Subsequent Passovers were to be communal events (Dt 16:1-8). 
  3. The day after the Passover was to be a special Sabbath (Ex 12:16)
  4. If the Last Supper of Mt, Mk and Lk was a Passover meal, it does not conform to Dt 16:1-8. Also, the relaxed postures (Mt 26:20, Mk 14:18, Lk 22:14 and Jn 13:26 hardly conform to Ex 12:11.
  5. The gospel of John teaches that the Passover had not yet been eaten, according to Jn 18:28, 19:31, 19:42.
  6. The gospel of John also states that the day after the crucifixion was to be a special sabbath (Jn 19:31).
  7. Jesus claimed he would be buried for three nights (Mt 12:40)

Contrary to common traditional understanding, it seems that the Last Supper was on a Wednesday night, the crucifixion took place on the following morning, a Thursday, which was the day of the Passover. The Friday was a special Sabbath, the Saturday the regular Sabbath, and the Sunday was the resurrection. No other conclusion fits the data. The Jews crucified Jesus, then went and ate the Passover meal. It was fitting that Jesus would be crucified on the Passover (1 Cor 5:7, Ex 12:46).

Jesus taken to the Sanhedrin (Mt 26:57-66)
As an accused blasphemer, Jesus needed to be taken before the judges so two witnesses could testify to his blasphemy (Lev 24:14, Dt 19:15). Notice the difficulty they had getting two witnesses to testify in harmony! This was a troubling thing to those aware of the requirements that two witnesses concur prior to the execution of any judgment. The Law also prohibited false testimony. So the verdict against Jesus was a travesty of justice in several regards according to the Law. The Jewish leaders steamrolled the Law to get their judgment against Jesus.

Jesus taken to Pilate (Mt 27:1-26)
The guilty blasphemer was supposed to be stoned by all the people. Here we see just how afraid the Sanhedrin was of the crowds that believed in Jesus. Instead of executing him according to the Law for blasphemy, they turn him over to the Romans for sedition. The people couldn't dispute the verdict against the Romans, but they could have rioted or refused to stone Jesus if they would have sought to punish him according to the Law.

The temple curtain torn (Mt 27:5)
One of the most significant events in the gospels! That which separated men from God (Lev 16:1-2) is finally removed, by God himself. This marks the change in covenants.

The guard posted outside the tomb of Jesus (Mt 27:62-66)
The day after the crucifixion was a Sabbath. The leaders of the Jews went to see Pilate on the Sabbath to ask for a guard of the tomb.

The authority of Jesus (Mt 28:18)
Moses had been given authority by God, and he delegated it to the judges (Dt 1:9-18). Now, Jesus has all the authority- see Phil 2:9-10, Eph 1:20-23, Col 2:15, 1:18. There has been a change in covenants.

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The Law and Christianity

Early Christians
The earliest Christians were Jews, and there were several ways in which they dealt with the Law of Moses in the early church. These were driven by their own faith in Jesus as the Messiah, but also in response to questions and criticisms from the Jews.

One of the earliest and strongest allegations by Jews against Christians was that Christians were against the Law and wanted to subvert all that God had established (Acts 6:11-14, 18:13, 21:28). This was addressed in two particular ways.

First, the Christians explained how Jesus came as the Messiah predicted by the Law (Acts 3:22, 7:37). In fulfilling the Law, he abolished it (Acts 3:22, 7:37). They explained that since no man could obey the Law (Acts 7:53), the Law had the effect of bringing death (1 Cor 15:56, 2 Cor 3:7). Jesus was said to have died for these sins, thus redeeming the Jews from the Law (as well as providing a means for salvation for the Gentiles) (Acts 13:39, 26:22ff, Eph 2:15, Phil 3:9). Now, the Christian way of love was the fulfillment of all that the Law actually taught.

The books of Romans and Galatians articulated these points in more detail, each containing these main points:

Second, the early Christians made special efforts to honor the Law (Acts 22:3, 22:12-14, 25:8) and to follow it as much as possible for the sake of other Jews who had not yet become Christians (1 Cor 9:20-21). This included joining Jews in meeting in the synagogue on the Sabbath (Acts 13:15) and participating in vows and upholding various Law-based dietary restrictions (Acts 15:29, 21:20-24). This was done to demonstrate respect for the Law in the eyes of those who did not yet believe in Christ, and to provide an opportunity to proclaim the gospel. While this was helpful in persuading some Jews, others did not believe the message (Acts 28:25-28, 2 Cor 3:15).

Lastly, the earliest Christians used the Law was to consult it for godly principles and as a guideline in righteousness (1 Cor 9:8-9, 14:21, 14:34, Jas 1:25, 2:8-12).

If the relationship between Christians and Jews was strained over matters of the Law, it became doubly strained when the Gentiles came into the picture. Jews considered the Gentiles unclean (Acts 10:28) and could not associate with them-- and this attitude was held by the early Christians for a time. The Jews had a long-standing history of being the specially chosen people of God.

Christians eventually realized that the gospel was for both Jew and Gentile, though even the apostles and leaders of the early church needed some Divine prodding to start reaching out to Gentiles (Acts 10:15, 11:1-18). God intended to bless the Gentiles through them and through the Messiah (Acts 15:16-18,  Rom 4:16, Gal 3:8). Christ was a fulfillment of the covenant promises to Abraham as well as a fulfillment of the Law, and his blessings were intended for all men and not just the Jews. (See the Barnabas Ministry article Old Testament Covenants for more on this.)

Christians wrestled with the question of whether Gentiles would need to be circumcised and follow the Law to become "true Christians" (Acts 15:1, 5), and this threatened to divide the church. This question was answered with a resounding "No" in the so-called Jerusalem Conference in Acts 15. The early Christian leaders realized that circumcision was an obligation to obey the Law (Gal 5:3), and obeying the Law could not bring salvation because it was not possible anyway (Acts 15:8-11). The Law was intended to bring people to Christ and salvation (Gal 3:24); it would be pointless and "going backwards" theologically to bring people from salvation back to the Law.

These questions concerning the Law and the Gentiles hung over the early church like a fog. As seen above, these were a dominant theme in the gospel of Matthew as well as the books of Acts, Romans, Galatians and Hebrews. Though for a time false teachings and false teachers made their rounds, over time the orthodox position prevailed.

Modern Christians
For Christians today, what should the place of the Law be? There is seemingly little importance in following the Law to bridge the gap between Christians and Jews, especially for Gentile believers. Not only that, without a temple the Law is incomplete. However, Christians should recognize that Jews (and those of many other world faiths) generally respect the legalism or strictness in a law-based system-- if not the godly standards of conduct that are presented in the Law.
Paul strove to walk the fine line of being "all things to all people" (1 Cor 9:19-21) so that some might be saved. Though we are not under Law, we should be careful that this freedom from Law does not appear ungodly, cause the weak to stumble (1 Cor 8:9) or allow indulgence of the sinful nature (Gal 5:13).

However, seeing how some of the earliest Christians were tempted to go from salvation and freedom back to the Law serves as an ominous reminder of how deceptive and appealing law-based systems can be. The history of the early church shows how the defenders of these systems can be so zealous and take such pride in these systems and their results. These things live on today in program-driven or performance-driven churches, promising measurable and great results if everybody just follows some set of rules, program or formula. These things may look impressive and produce some good results for a short period of time, but they lack true spiritual value (Col 2:20-23) and their end result is the same as that of any law--and that's death. Christians must resist being seduced by these glitzy, quick-fix approaches and continually oppose and expose them as inferior to the Gospel.

But all of this isn't to say that truth or righteousness aren't important. Many standards of godliness and/or righteousness that are contained in the Law are under attack in our culture. There can be an enormous pressure to ignore the Law's standards of righteousness to appease this culture. But solid study and careful consideration ought to characterize our approach to determining how the Law relates to situations in modern life. To a culture looking for truth or questioning whether truth even exists, the Law can be a source of that truth.

In addition, Christians can exegete Scripture more faithfully and accurately with a better understanding of the Law. Biblical texts from Old Testament narratives and prophets to New Testament gospels, epistles and even Revelation are laced with references to the Law. Fluency in matters concerning the Law enables the reader to understand these references as intended by the Bible writers.

Lastly, the Law also still serves as a testimony and instructor concerning the Christian faith. We can learn profound things about the gospel and our faith by examining the Law and seeing how Jesus fulfilled elements of it.

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Copyright © 1985, 2007 John Engler. All rights reserved.

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